Efectos del entrenamiento de la aptitud muscular sobre la adiposidad corporal y el desempeño motriz en niños y jóvenes: un meta-análisis.

  • Ángel Adrián Casas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Depto Educacion Fisica, (Argentina)
  • Fernando Naclerio University of Greenwich, Department of Life and Sport Science, (Reino Unido)
  • Xurxo Dopico Calvo Universidad Da Coruña, Departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva., (España)
  • Christian García Pontificia Universidad Católica, Departamento de Investigación Francisco Valsecchi, (Argentina)

Resumen

El propósito de este meta-análisis fue determinar la eficacia del efecto de entrenamiento de la aptitud muscular sobre el nivel de adiposidad y el rendimiento motriz en niños y jóvenes que no participan en deporte profesional y de alta competición. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en siete bases de datos electrónicas. Los estudios analizados fueron solo ensayos controlados que evaluaron los efectos del entrenamiento de la aptitud muscular sobre la adiposidad corporal (índice de masa corporal IMC; grasa corporal total GCT y adiposidad abdominal) y el desempeño motriz (salto en longitud sin carrera previa SL y lanzamiento de balón medicinal LMB) de niños y jóvenes. Dos evaluadores revisaron los estudios de forma independiente. Veintidós estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y fueron utilizados en este meta-análisis (n= 697). El tamaño del efecto (TE) fue calculado usando el estadístico de Cohen, índice de la familia d. El efecto global estimado para el IMC fue pequeño y el límite del intervalo superior fue >0 (n= 7, d= -0.12, IC  95% -0.35 a 0.10). En el caso de la grasa corporal el TE fue moderado (n= 8, d= -0.37, IC  95% -0.58 a -0.17), al igual que el rendimiento de  saltabilidad (n= 12, d= 0.54, IC 95% 0.36 a 0.72) y lanzamiento (n=4, d= 0.49, IC 95% 0.22 a 0.76). Los resultados de este meta-análisis sugieren que los programas de entrenamiento de la aptitud muscular son eficaces para reducir la adiposidad corporal e incrementar el desempeño motriz en la saltabilidad y el lanzamiento de niños y jóvenes que no participan en deporte profesional y de alta competición.

Palabras clave:

Aptitud muscular, Niños, Salud, Adiposidad, Fuerza muscular

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Publicado
2018-04-27
Cómo citar
Casas, Ángel, Naclerio, F., Dopico Calvo, X., & García, C. (2018). Efectos del entrenamiento de la aptitud muscular sobre la adiposidad corporal y el desempeño motriz en niños y jóvenes: un meta-análisis. Educación Física Y Ciencia, 20(2), e046. https://doi.org/10.24215/23142561e046
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